glossary of terms

The glossary of terms in this chapter explains what is commonly used in areas where paint is handled or used. Many of the terms that are currently used are mostly understandable, but some are difficult to distinguish clearly. The purpose of editing this glossary is to eliminate errors by the contradictory interpretation of terms.


Abrasion resistance
Abrasion resistance Resistance to friction
Abrasive Sand grit
Abrasive A type of abrasive required to carry out substrate treatment with a sand grit-like spraying method
Absorption Soaking up a material with an object
Accelerator A substance that increases the speed of a chemical reaction In paint, a substance that promotes curing or crosslinking of resin
Acrylic resin
Acrylic resin A synthetic resin made by the polymerization of various acrylic compounds alone or in combination
Activator An accelerator or hardener
Adduct curing agent
Adduct curing agent A hardener combined with part of resin
Adhesion The degree of close contact between a film and an underlying surface
Adsorption The suction power to a surface, the adhesion of other molecules to the surface of an object
Air cap(or Air nozzle)
Air cap (or Air nozzle) A hole at the front part of a spray gun to automatically adjust the amount of air
Airdrying A method of drying by oxidation or evaporation through exposure to air without heating or using a catalyst
Air entrapment
Air entrapment The state in which air bubbles are generated on a paint film
Airless spraying
Airless spraying Spray coating that does not use air to spray paint
Aliphatic hydrocarbon
Aliphatic hydrocarbon A solvent with weak solubility extracted from petroleum (compound with a straight chain bond)
Alkyd resin
Alkyd resin A resin made by reacting alcohol with acid
Alligatoring A phenomenon in which the appearance of coating becomes wrinkled resembling crocodile skin
Amine adduct
Amine adduct Amine curing agent mixed with part of resin
Aminess An organic compound having a -NH2 group, An organic compound substituted in ammonia
Anchor pattern
Anchor pattern The roughness from the side
Anode The positive pole of a battery where an oxidation reaction occurs In a corrosive reaction, the anode is the part that changes into a solution
Anticorrosive paint or composition
Anticorrosive paint or Composition A paint to prevent the corrosion of metal
Aromatic hydrocarbon
Aromatic hydrocarbon A benzene compound with high solubility such as toluol or xylol


Barrier coat
Barrier coat A coating method for separating the coating from the surface to be coated
Binder An agent holding nonvolatile contents and pigments in a sealant contained in paint
Bituminous coating
Bituminous coating A paint made by melting coal tar or asphalt
Blast angle
Blast angle The angle of a spray tip or the angle of spray particles to a surface
Blast cleaning
Blast cleaning A method of cleaning or roughening a surface with compressed air or a mechanical method using steel abrasives
Bleeding The color of undercoat smudges when a top coat is applied.
Blistering A phenomenon in which a coating partially swells up. Such phenomena include liquid vapors, gases, and crystals.
Blooming A phenomenon in which nail-shaped matte spots appear on a glossy coating, causing it to look discolored. Some spots can be erased when rubbed
Blushing A phenomenon in which a coating film becomes foggy while drying Loss of gloss due to moisture
Body A word indicating apparent viscosity
Bodying A phenomenon in which the viscosity of paint, varnish, lacquer, etc. increases during storage
Bonding Adherence
Bounce back
Bounce back A phenomenon in which paint splashes from a surface while spraying
Boxing Mixing by transferring from one container to another container
Bridging A method of keeping holes or damaged parts on a surface the same as the surface of the substrate by a special method
Brittleness The degree of cracking or breaking by bending paint
Brushability Ease of brushing
Bubbling A phenomenon in which bubbles are generated on a coated film surface temporarily or permanently by air or solvent vapor
Build Dry film thickness of paint or varnish
Butadiene Unsaturated hydrocarbon used as a copolymer in various resins


Catalyst An accelerator or hardener
Cathode Anode
Cathode The opposite of anode, that is, the electrode of a battery where a reduction reaction occurs
Cathodic protection
Cathodic protection An electrical method for preventing corrosion by using cathode and anode compounds in which a corrosion reaction does not occur
Carboxy group
Carboxy group Acidic compound having a -COOH group
Centi poise
Centi poise Unit of viscosity
Chalking A phenomenon in which a white, chalky powder is formed on the surface of a coating film
Checking A phenomenon in which the surface of coating film cracks
Chipping 1)
Chipping 1) The method of treating a steel surface with a special hammer 2) A type of spoiled paint
Chlorinated rubber
Chlorinated rubber Chlorinated polypropylene, chlorinated rubber
Cissing A kind of defect in which wet coating does not spread well to the surface and agglomerates
Cleaner 1)
Cleaner 1) Acid, alkali or other cleaning agent (based on water or steam) 2) Solvents for cleaning coating equipment
Clean surface
Clean surface Well-treated surface
Coal tar
Coal tar Residue that remains after the distillation of coal
Cola tar epixy paint
Coal tar epoxy paint A paint in which a sealant is composed of epoxy resin and coal tar
Coat One coat of paint, vanish, lacquer, etc. The coating specification is usually determined by the frequency of coating
Cobwebbing A phenomenon in which fine particles do not come out from a nozzle, and paint comes out in a thread shape during coating
Cohesion The force of paint particles or vanish film sticking together to a part with a large cohesive force The meaning is different from adhesion
Cold curing
Cold curing The process of a curing reaction at room temperature
Colorfast Discoloration does not occur
Color retention
Color retention The ability to preserve the original color in the process of aging of a coating film
Compatibility The degree of mixing with different compounds Compatibility
Converter Catalysts, hardeners, accelerators, namely a substance that changes the condition
Copolymer A polymeric material obtained by copolymerizing different monomers
Corrosion A phenomenon in which corrosion occurs by oxidation due to environmental conditions
Coverage An area that paint can be applied per unit volume based on dry film
Cracking A phenomenon in which a coating film cracks deeply on a substrate surface
Cratering A phenomenon in which a small crater-shaped depression is formed in film
Crawling A phenomenon in which a coating surface shrinks irregularly
Crosslinking agent
Crosslinking agent A substance that chemically reacts with molecular chains of a thermoplastic material to interconnect the molecular chains
Crossspray A spraying procedure, in which spraying is first applied vertically and then laterally
Curing The process of heating or chemically condensing or polymerizing a substance
Curing agent
Curing agent A substance that accelerates the curing of film


Deadman Valve
Deadman Valve Locking the valve of blast nozzle by a remote controller
Degreaser A chemical solution or compound that is able to remove grease
Delamination Separating layers of overlapping objects
Descaling (scaling) A method of removing mill scale or rust on a steel surface with a mechanical method or flame treatment
Dew pont
Dew point The temperature at which moisture condenses
Diluent A volatile liquid or thinner that is not a solvent used for nonvolatile components of a varnish or lacquer and virtually has no effect, and is used with true solvents.
Drier A chemical that oxidizes paint or promotes drying
Dry spray
Dry spray Overlapping coating of partially dried spray particles before paint is coated on a surface
Drying time
Drying time The time to complete drying after coating
Dry to handle
Dry to handle The time until a coated surface can be handled without any damage after coating
Dry to recoat
Dry to recoat The drying time until a second coating is possible after a first coating
Dry to touch
Dry to touch The drying time until tack-free after coating
Drying oil
Drying oil Oil that has a property of forming a relatively hard film by oxidation when the thin film of oil is exposed to air (vegetable oil such as linseed oil or tung oil)
Dulling Loss of gloss
Durability The degree to which a coating film can withstand a given condition


Efflorescence A soluble, basic compound that is used on bricks or concrete surfaces
Electrolysis The method of decomposition by electric discharge
Electrolyte A substance that changes into ions when it is dissolved and charged with electricity
Electrostatic spray
Electrostatic spray A method of coating by generating static electricity between a surface to be coated and sprayed paint
Emulsion paint
Emulsion paint A water-based paint made of emulsion sealant
Enamel A hard, glossy paint with pigment added to the varnish
Epoxy paint
Epoxy paint A paint composed of epoxy resin, which is classified as follows according to the factor that forms the crosslinking. Namely, epoxy/amine epoxy/polyamide epoxy/isocyanate. Here, polyamine, polyamide, isocyanate, etc. are typical crosslinking factors
Epoxy resin
Epoxy resin A synthetic resin with an epoxy group
Epoxy ester
Epoxy ester Epoxy-modified dry oil
Erosion A phenomenon in which a coating film of paint is worn. Chalking appears if it is severe__
Ester A reactant between alcohol and acid
Etch A method of surface treatment by a chemical method before coating to increase adhesion
Etch primer
Etch primer A polyvinyl butyral, zinc chromate paint, which is called a wash primer and uses acid as a catalyst
Extender Body pigment, A powdery inorganic material with almost no hiding power due to a low refractive index
External mix
External mix A spray used by mixing paint and outside air
Elastomer A polymer having rubber phase properties


Fadeometer A machine for testing the resistance of colors
Fading Decrease in color brightness (decoloration)
False body
False body Having thixotropic properties
Fan pattern
Fan pattern A geometric pattern of a spray method
Feather edge
Feather edge A thin end
Filiform corrosion
Filiform corrosion Corrosion of a steel plate in a thread shape under a coating film
Filler A material to be filled in cracks to smoothen a surface
Film build
Film build Dry film thickness that can be applied in one coat
Film former
Film former A substance that is formed after drying following coating in a fluid state
Film integrity
Film integrity Continuous state of coating film
Film thickness gauge
Film thickness gauge A device for measuring the film thickness of paint and a machine for measuring the dry film and wet film
Fineness of grind
Fineness of grind Particle size or roughness during coating The degree of dispersion of pigment ina binder
Fingering Improper coating shape (broken finger shape)
Flaking Breaking into small pieces or debris
Flammability A condition in which fire may easily occur
Flash point
Flash point The lowest temperature at which solvent vapors will ignite in air
Floating A phenomenon in which pigment rises on a surface of a coating film
Flooding Floating
Flooding Refer to floating
Flow The state of spreading on a surface of a wet film after spraying so that the brush marks or the surface condition after drying can be consistent
Flow cup
Flow cup A tool for measuring the viscosity of paint or varnish
Fluid tip
Fluid tip A nozzle of a spray gun with a needle-hole size
Fogging A cloudy condition such as fog
Force drying
Force drying A method of increasing the temperature to accelerate drying
Fungicide A toxic substance that prevents bacteria It suppresses or prevents the growth of bacteri


Galvanic corrosion
Galvanic corrosion Electrical corrosion different from steel corrosion
Generic A collection of any special objects
Gloss Luster, reflectance, brightness
Gloss retention
Gloss retention The ability to maintain the initial gloss
Grit An abrasive made of iron slag (threads) or other materials
Grit Blasting Blasting clearing
Grit Blasting Refer to blasting clearing


Hardener A curing agent, accelerator, catalyst, or crosslinking accelerator
Hiding power
Hiding power Obliterating power
High build
High build A paint that can be applied thickly in one coat
Holiday Pinholes, cracks
Holiday detector
Holiday detector A pinhole inhibitor
Hydrophilic A property in which a substance can easily be mixed with or dissolved in water
Hydroxyl A compound having a -OH group


Impact resistance
Impact resistance Power resistant to impact. Impact resistance
Imcompatibility A property in which substances are not mixed with each other
Inhibitive pigment
Inhibitive pigment A pigment that prevents or inhibits corrosion
Inorganic Compounds not containing carbon
Intercoat coatings
Intercoat coatings Paint with a vehicle made of inorganic compounds and a coating method
Intercoat contamination
Intercoat contamination The presence of impurities in continuous coating
Internal mix
Internal mix A spray gun that sprays paint after premixing the paint and inside air
Intumesce Swelling phenomenon during combustion Bubbling or swelling when heat is applied.
Isocyante resins
Isocyante resins A compound having an NCO group such as a polyurethane resin


KTA panel
KTA panel A special test board having patterns with a very uniform interval or marks
Ketons Organic solvent with a -CO group Commonly used ketones are acetone dimethyl ketone, MEK (Methylethyl ketone), and MIBK (Methyl isobutyl ketone).
Kreb units
Kreb units Unit of viscosity


Lacquer A paint made of nitrocellulose, which dries fast and has low non-volatility, in general
Latex Natural or synthetic rubber emulsions or synthetic resin emulsions
Leaching The process of filtering a mixture with a solvent to extract the dissolved matter from the mixture with impurities
Leafing The position of pigment particles based on the horizontal plane of a film


Mendrel Test
Mendrel Test A physical method to test adhesion and bendability
Micron 1/1000mm
Mil 1/1000inch:25.4microns
Milscale Oxidation compromised of a black film that occurs during the process of heating steel
Mineral spirits
Mineral spirits Hydrocarbons in fat, which are extracted from petroleum
Miscible Easy to mix and combine
Mist coat
Mist coat A method of coating very thinly
Monomer A unit molecule for making a polymer
Mud-cracking An irregularly cracked state


Non-drying oil
Non-drying oil Oil that is not oxidized when exposed to air It does not affect film formation.
Nonflammable Incombustible
Nonvolatile Liquids remaining after solvent evaporation in solids, nonvolatile components, and paint


Oil length
Oil length Modified alkyd resin The ratio of oil to resin such as varnish
Oleo-resinous A varnish made of dry vegetable oil with a natural or synthetic resin
Opacity(hiding power)
Opacity (hiding power) Performance of one coat of paint, which can hide the color of the surface to be coated
Orange peel
Orange peel A phenomenon in which a dry film surface resembles an orange peel
Organic compound
Organic compound A compound containing carbon
Osmosis Osmotic pressure, A liquid moving to a coating film of paint or other materials
Oxidation Combining with oxygen Namely, drying or combustion, anti-rust, e


Pass (spray) Spaying in one direction with a spray gun
Passivation Inert or non-reactive action
Peeling A phenomenon in which paint is peeled and falls off
Phenolic resins
Phenolic resins Synthetic resin made by reacting phenol compounds (phenol, cresol, xylene, resorcinol) with formaldehyde It may be used for paint and varnish by transforming into rosin, rosin base ester-drying oil, etc.
PH value
PH value The value that specifies acidity and alkalinity. PH 7 is neutral, PH 1 to 7 are acidic, and PH 7 to 14 are alkaline.
Phosphating Zinc, Surface treatment to form an iron or manganese film
Pickling Surface treatment by immersing a steel plate using acid
Pigment/binder ratio
Pigment/binder ratio The ratio of the total pigment to binder in paint It is represented as a normal volume ratio.
Pigments Solids that can reflect color Pigment
Pigment volume concetration(PVC)
Pigment volume Concentration (PVC) The ratio of pigment in dry film presented as a percentage by volume
Pin-holing The shape of a small hole in film that appears deep into a surface Refer to cratering
Plasticizer A substance added to resin for good bending resistance Plasticizer
Polymer A vinyl resin with one or more molecules bonded is a typical polymer.
Polyvinyl acetate(PVA)
Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) Synthetic resin used for water-based paints. It is made by the polymerization of vinyl acetate.
Polyvinyl chloride(PVC)
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Synthetic resin used for solvent-based paint It is produced by the polymerization of vinyl chloride. It is also used in water-based emulsion.
Polyurethane resin
Polyurethane resin A synthetic resin made by reacting polyisocyanate with a polymer containing a hydroxyl group Usually, this resin is 2K and is used by mixing right before use.
Porosity Steam transfer ability
Pot-life Usable time after mixing 2K paint
Prefabrication primer
Prefabrication primer Shop primer A quick-drying paint that is thinly coated to protect a steel surface after surface treatment, such as by blasting, before or during the manufacture of any structure or object
Profile Side view


Reflectance Light reflectance
Resin Natural or artificial synthetic resin forming coating contained in paint, varnish, lacquer, etc.
Roller A tool used for coating


Sagging When paint is applied and left vertically, the paint flows down, and the bottom part becomes thick
Safomify Saponification Alkalizing an ester compound
Sealer A transparent or colored material that is applied on absorbent surfaces before coating
Settling Sedimentation
Shade The degree to which gray color appears
Shelf life
Shelf life The maximum storage time for storing a material without any problem__
Shot blasting
Shot blasting Refer to blast cleaning
Skinning A solid film or film formed on the upper surface of liquid
Solids Nonvolatile matter in paint
Solids volume
Solids volume A percentage by volume of nonvolatile matter in paint
Solvent A liquid capable of dissolving other substances
Spray cap
Spray cap A plug in front of a spray gun with an air vent
Spray head
Spray head A word collectively referred to as a needle, tip and air cap of a spray gun
Spray pattern
Spray pattern The manner of spraying A constant rate of spray gun, etc.
Spreading rate
Spreading rate The application amount calculated based on a dry film thickness
Substrate A surface of an object to be coated
Synthetic Artificial, not natural


Tack The degree of stickiness when pressed with a finger
Thermoplastic A property in which a heated material becomes liquid after softening and hardened after cooling
Thinners Volatile liquids used to lower the viscosity of paint
Thixotropics When a material is stirred or shaken, the viscosity decreases, and it becomes fluid while it is left, it returns to its original state
Toluene Organic hydrocarbon solvent commonly referred to as toluol
Tooth The roughness of a surface viewed from the side
Two component gun
Two component gun A spray gun with two separate nozzles used for 2K paint
Two pack
Two pack 2K paint It must be mixed at the proper ratio right before use. The mixture should be used within the specified pot life.


Underatomized Poor particle size due to insufficient dispersion
Underbound Too much pigment mixed in varnish
Undercoat A paint that is applied after undercoating. Namely, paint that is applied after a primer or before a top coat


Varnish A binder: film forming agent
Vehicle The remaining liquid component excluding the pigment component in paint
Vinyl copolymer
Vinyl copolymer A copolymer resin made by the copolymerization of vinyl acetate and vinyl chloride
Vinyl resin
Vinyl resin A plastic synthetic resin obtained by polymerizing monomers containing a vinyl group
Viscosity A measurement unit of a fluid state
Viscosity Cup
Viscosity Cup A device to measure the viscosity
Voids Holes
Volatile content
Volatile content The percentage of the amount of material that can evaporate
Volume solids
Volume solids The percentage of solid volume in paint
Volume solids
Volume solids The percentage of solid volume in paint


Wash primer
Wash primer Polyvinyl butyrate An anti-corrosive paint that is made by using chromate pigment to a binder and is applied very thinly It is known as an etch primer.
Water blasting
Water blasting A method of surface treatment by spraying water at high speed
Water Spotting
Water Spotting A groove that is generated by small water droplets
Weatherometer An accelerated weather resistance test device
Weld slag
Weld slag Non-crystalline residue generated during welding
Weld spatter
Weld spatter Bead-like metal attached to a welded part after welding
Wetonwet A coating technique with which paint can be applied subsequently before the previous paint is dried A special design is required.
Wet spray
Wet spray Coating a surface before paint coated on the surface dries


Xylene An organic hydrocarbon solvent called Xylol


Zinc rich primer
Zinc rich primer A primer that is coated on a steel surface to prevent electrical corrosion since dry film contains a lot of zinc dust. Here, zinc plays a role of cathodic protection in which zinc is corroded before the steel surface does.
Zinc silicate
Zinc silicate An inorganic zinc paint
Zinc Yellow
Zinc Yellow Zinc Chromate

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